Annals of Optometry and Contact Lens 2016;15(3):80-85.
Published online September 25, 2016.
The Prevalence of Hyperopia in Korean Children: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011
Suk-Gyu Ha, Seung-Hee Baek, Key-Hwan Lim, Seung-Hyun Kim, on behalf of the Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Ophthalmological Society
Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine1, Seoul, Korea
Department of Ophthalmology, Kim’s Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine2, Seoul, Korea
Department of Ophthalmology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Schools of Medicine Ewha Womans University3, Seoul, Korea
Received: 11 May 2016   • Revised: 13 June 2016   • Accepted: 30 June 2016
Purpose: This study sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperopia in Korean school children aged 5-18 years.
Methods: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) used an autorefraction test without cycloplegia to obtain refractive data on the population between 5 and 18 years of age. Using data from the right eye with a spherical equivalent (SE) value. Hyperopia was defined over than +1 diopter (D) of SE. We classified subjects as having mild hyperopia (+1.00 D < SE ≤ +3.00 D), moderate hyperopia (+3.00 D < SE ≤ +5.00 D), or severe hyperopia (SE > +5.00 D). Age, gender, region and horizontal strabismus-specific rates for each type of hyperopia were compared to subjects without hyperopia.
Results: Of the 6084 participating children who completed the KNHNES, hyperopia was observed in 2.2% (n=134) of the children. The prevalence of mild (mean, SE: 1.74 ± 0.52 D, range: 1.06-3.00), moderate (mean, SE: 3.84 ± 0.62 D, range: 3.25-5.00), and severe hyperopia (mean, SE: 5.90 ± 0.63 D, range: 5.50-7.00) was 1.9, 0.2, and 0.1%, respectively. Mild hyperopia was more prevalent in girls of preschool age (5-7 years; p=0.02). Esodeviation was also present in 8.2% of the hyperopic population. However, no differences were found with regard to age or region in the hyperopic population.
Conclusions: The prevalence of hyperopia was only 2.2% in the children of the study population. Thus, hyperopia is a relatively rare refractive error in Korea.
Key Words: Hyperopia; Refractive error; Prevalence
METRICS Graph View
  • 354 View
  • 2 Download
Related articles

Editorial Office
Korea University Anam Hospital, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2271-6603    Fax: +82-2-2277-5194    E-mail:                

Copyright © 2023 by The Korean Optometry Society and The Korean Contact Lens Study Society.

Developed in M2PI

Close layer
prev next