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Correlation between Ocular Surface Staining Score and Serum Vitamin D in Sjögren’s and Non-Sjögren’s Syndrome
Ann Optom Contact Lens 2021;20:32-38
Published online March 25, 2021
© 2021 The Korean Optometry & Contact Lens Study Society

Yeseul Gong, MD1, Kui Dong Kang, MD, PhD1, Hyun Seung Kim, MD, PhD2, Hyung Bin Hwang, MD, PhD1

Department of Ophthalmology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea1, Incheon, Korea
Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea2, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyung Bin Hwang, MD, PhD
Department of Ophthalmology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, #56 Dongsu-ro, Bupyeong-gu, Incheon 21431, Korea
Tel: 82-32-280-5110, Fax: 82-32-280-5118
* Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts to disclose.
Received January 21, 2021; Revised March 19, 2021; Accepted March 21, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: To analyze the correlation between the ocular surface staining score (OSS) and serum vitamin D level for patients of Sjögren's syndrome (group A) and non-Sjögren's syndrome (group B) with dry eye symptoms.
Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, The Schirmer I test, OSS, tear film break-up time and serum vitamin D level were measured in 65 eyes of 65 adults complaining of dry eye. Among 65 people, 35 people in group A and 30 people in group B. The Student’s t-test was used for analyzing the ocular surface staining respectively, in group A and group B patients. Pearson’s correlation was used to analyze the correlations of OSS with serum vitamin D level.
Results: The serum vitamin D level (rho = -0.245, p = 0.049) was negatively correlated with OSSs. Especially, the serum vitamin D level (rho = -0.440, p = 0.008) was significantly negatively correlated with OSSs in Sjögren's syndrome patients even more than total patient group.
Conclusions: This suggests that the OSS is highly related to immunological factors such as vitamin D in dry eyes due to an underlying immunological disease. Finding the exact relationship between the inducer of dry eye and the degree of dry eye and clarifying the correlation seems to play an important role in the direction of treatment for dry eye.
Keywords : Dry eye syndrome; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Ocular staining score; Sjögren’s syndrome; Vitamin D

March 2021, 20 (1)