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Current Status of Retinal Implant Development
Ann Optom Contact Lens 2018;17:53-59
Published online September 25, 2018
© 2018 The Korean Optometry & Contact Lens Study Society

Seong-Woo Kim, MD, PhD

Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Seong-Woo Kim, MD, PhD
Department of Ophthalmology, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, #73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
Tel: 82-31-412-5160, Fax: 82-31-414-8930
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa may lead to progressive vision loss in over 15 million people worldwide. While retinal degeneration destroys the photoreceptors, inner retinal circuits may continue to function for many years despite neuronal remodeling and are sufficiently preserved to make it possible to restore sight using prosthetic devices. Subretinal, epiretinal, and other retinal prostheses implants are currently designed to restore functional vision in retinal degenerative diseases. With the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformité Européenne (CE) approval of the Argus II (FDA 2013, CE 2011) and the Alpha-IMS (CE 2013), the use of retinal prostheses for vision loss is expanding rapidly. In this review, different types of retinal prostheses, implant locations, and visual outcomes have been summarized.
Keywords : Retinal prosthesis; Visual prosthesis; Retinal degeneration; Electric stimulation; Bionic eye

March 2019, 18 (1)