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  • The Annals of Optometry and Contact lens (AOCL), the official journal of the Korean Optometry and Contact Lens Study Society, is published quarterly (March, June, September, December) on the 25th day of month. This journal publishes manuscripts describing both clinical and basic science research or case reports in optometry, contact lens and all fields of ophthalmology: cornea, cataract, glaucoma, retina, oculoplasty, strabismus. A contributor (The first author) shall be a member or an associate member of the Korean Optometry and Contact Lens Study Society or Ophthalmologist in principle. For those who are non-members, the editorial committee shall determine whether to publish the work or not.

  • 1. Matters of Ethical Review

    1) Research ethics including research integrity and publishing integrity should follow according to the ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (’ stipulated by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE).

    2) All research must be followed research and publication ethics recommended in the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors.

    3) Research topics, study size, setting of control group, and the method of collection of research data must proper for research ethics.

    4) If human subjects were involved in the study, the authors must confirm that the research follow the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki ( And it is recommended that the research is approved by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB). Authors should answer when our committee request consent or IRB approval documents of the target group included in the clinical studies.

    5) In animal experiments, it must be written to show that it meets the guidelines of the ARVO Statement institute for Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. And any research that may affect the safety of life should be instructed by the appropriate committee ( or

    6) No publication can be made in any form including the introduction of an article, photographs, family profile, etc., which discloses personal information that may reveal the identity of a patient. If disclosure of the patient's personal information is inevitable and is based on scientific value, written permission should be received from the patient, the parents or the guardian before publication.

    7) Authors are required to disclose commercial or similar relationships to products or companies mentioned in the article being submitted.

    8) Review and handling procedures related to research and publication misconduct including duplicate publication, plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, non-disclosured conflict of interest, ethics about paper submission, etc will be assessed and conducted by publication ethics committee after being discussed by editorial board. (

    9) Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases, (e.g., prostate cancer)." Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.

  • 2. Scope
    1. 1) The Annals of Optometry and Contact lens will publish manuscripts in the following categories: original articles, case reports, review articles and letters to the Editor, clinical experiments, and other memoirs as required by the editorial team.
    2. 2) The papers submitted to the association should have not been published elsewhere and should not be reviewed simultaneously for publication in other journals. The copyright on all published articles will be permanently held by the Korea Optometry and Contact Lens Study Society so that the published papers cannot be presented in any other journal.

  • 3. Style Requirements

    1) You can submit manuscript in English or Korean. If you use Korean language, please follow the "Instruction for Authors" in Korean.
    2) Papers should be submitted in A4 paper (210×297 mm) with double space, 10 font in size, and 2.5 cm in right/left/upper/ lower margins using only Microsoft Office Word. Every chapter of each paper should have a page number and running head on the right upper side without using abbreviations.
    3) All papers should contain (1) title page (2) English abstract and key words (3) introduction (4) materials and methods (5) conclusion (6) discussion (7) references (8) illustrations and explanatory captions and (9) tables in the same order as they are presented here. As for case reports, the following should be presented in this order: (1) title page (2) English abstract and key words (3) introduction (4) cases (5) discussion (6) references (7) illustrations and explanatory captions and (8) tables. Each section should start on a new page.
    4) The number should be Arabic numerals, and units of measures should use the metric system, following the International System of Units (SI) ( or

    1. (1) Title Page
      • ① Title

        The title should be short and clear, not exceeding 135 characters and two lines. The first letter of each word should be capitalized except for articles or prepositions. The title should not include any abbreviation and product name.

      • ② Authors

        The authors should be listed based on their importance in writing the paper. The English full name should be written, along with the final degree awarded.
        Example) Kil Dong Hong, M.D.

      • ③ Department(s) and Institution(s)

        If the authors are from several different division or hospitals, the citation number should be listed in each department without names to identify. The representative institutions to which the author belongs should be written in English.

      • ④ Corresponding authors

        The department(s) and institution(s), and the name, address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author should be indicated.

    2. (2) Abstract
      1. ① Abstract should provide a concise overview of all contents. The abstract should not exceed 350 words.
      2. ② It should be structured into Purpose, Methods, Results and Conclusions with bold fonts. Each should be described with a paragraph in a simple and clear manner, presenting concrete data.
      3. ③ Up to 5 keywords may be listed alphabetically after the abstract. The first letter of each word should be capitalized.
    3. (3) Text
      1. ① Introduction: The main objectives of the study should be systematically presented in a cohesive and logical manner. Any background information should be mentioned specifically when they are closely linked to the purpose.
      2. ② Materials and Methods: Research plan, materials and methods should be described in order. How subjects are composed and surveyed should also be described in detail. In addition, experimental procedures should be specific enough to be repeated if the experiment method is important.
      3. ③ Results: The results of the study should be described accurately and logically. The observed data should be statistically evaluated for biological measurements, if there are considerable changes in data. Tables should not duplicate information that was mentioned in the text but should be used to highlight key numerical information and points of interests.
      4. ④ Discussion: Discuss elements related to the purpose of the study and clarify results that support the conclusion by referring to the relevant literature.
    4. (4) References
      1. A. The list of references should be arranged in numerical order according to the sequence of citations within the text. That is, the citation number in the reference list and the number that appears in the text citation should be identical for the same reference.
        1. ① List name or names to cite a reference in the text as follows:

          Example) one author : Kim1, two authors : Kim and Park1, Three or more : Kim et al.1

        2. ② All references should be cited in the text. Any source marked as "cited from..." is not valid. Abstract, poster, word of mouth and manufactured manual cannot also be cited as references.
        3. ③ The period(.) should punctuate the sentence, not the citation number, which comes after the author's name, if any, otherwise follows the period.
          Example) - described1,2.(×), - described.1,2(○)
        4. ④ If two or more citation numbers are used, each number is followed by coma(,) and hyphen (-) in case of consecutive numbers.
          Example) - described.1-3, - described.1,2,7
      2. B. References should be written in English of Vancouver style. The journal names should be abbreviated and the first of all the words should be capitalized. References for journal articles should be indicated according to the journal title abbreviations used in Index Medicus. If the specific abbreviations are not available; the original titles should be used.
        1. ① List names of all authors when four or less. When five or more, list only the first three names and add "et al". References for journal articles list the author(s), the full title of the article, the journal title, the year of publication, the volume number and page range (use the full number for the first page and omit the repeated number for the last page) without using italics.
          Example) ⓐ Authors are five or more
          Bae SH, Choi DG. The dose-response relationship of vertical rectus muscle recession. Korean J Optom Vis Sci 2012; 11:107-12.
          Example) ⓑ Authors are five or more
          Baek SM, Kim HJ, Seo JM, et al. Hardness of nucleus in sclerotic change. Korean J Optom Vis Sci 2011;10:82-5.
        2. ② Book references list the author(s), complete publication date information, the edition, the place of publication, the publisher, the year of publication and page range (use the full number for the first page and omit the repeated number for the last page) without using italics.
          • Example) ⓐ Book
            • Harrington DO, Drake MV. The Visual Field. Text and Atlas of Clinical Perimetry, 6th ed. St Louis: CV Mosby, 1990;1-156.
          • Example) ⓑ A part of book (Chapter)
            • Parks MM. Eye movements and positions. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology, revised ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1993; v. 1. chap. 2.

        3. ③ When you quote electronic publishing literature, writes as follows.
          • Example) ⓐ Online article
            • Hussain N, Clive J, Bhandari V. Current incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, 1989-1997. Pediatrics 1999;104:e26. Accessed July 12, 2002.

          • Example) ⓑ DOI article
            • O'Mahony S, Rose SL, Chilvers AJ, et al. Finding an optimal method for imaging lymphatic vessels of the upper limb. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004. doi:10.1007/s00259-003-1399-3.

          • Example) ⓒ Electronic Publishing Book
            • Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CDI, Clinical dermatology illustrated [CD-ROM]. CMEA Multimedia Group producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0 San Diego: CMEA, 1995.
              C. All the references should be in English. Any relevant literature published in Korea should be included in the list of references, if possible.
    5. (5) Figures and Photographs
      1. ① Figures and photographs should be separated by attached sheet. Acceptable graphic files include jpg or TIFF formats with following resolution: over 5-million pixels, 300 dpi for color, 900 dpi for gray scale, 1,200 dpi for black and white. Numbered after each drawing or photograph in the same order in which they were mentioned in the text and add the explanation by English.
      2. ② The photo that was used during the peer review should be published. The fee required for the publication of illustrations will be charged to authors.
      3. ③ The size of photographs should be 7.5 cm or 15.5 cm in width. There is no limit for length.
      4. ④ Illustrations can be marked with arrows, letters or other indicators, if necessary. When multiple photos to be included in one picture, each photo should be listed by uppercase alphabet at upper left corner.
      5. ⑤ All abbreviations used in the figure should be described. Micrographs should be marked stain and magnification (example: HE stain, ×400), electron micrographs should be marked internal scale and magnification (example: original bar length 100 μm, ×5,000).
    6. (6) Figures and Explanatory Captions
      1. ① The explanatory caption for each illustration should be understandable without references to the text.
      2. ② A photo featuring a patient whose face can be identified should be accompanied by a written consent from the patient.
    7. (7) Table
      1. ① Each table should contain English and Arabic numerals and be written in the same font of the text. The line spacing is every other line.
      2. ② There should be serial numbers and brief titles according to the sequences in the text. The titles should be described as phrases and clauses and be upper left-justified. Only the first letter is capitalized and punctuation is not used at the end.
      3. ③ Vertical lines or oblique lines should not be used in each table. The left-most column should be aligned to the left and the data should be sorted middle.
      4. ④ Footnotes should be used in the following order: *, †, ‡, §, Π, #, **, ††... Each symbol must be defined in the endnotes.
      5. ⑤ If statistics are required, precisely describe the methods of statistical analysis methods and p-value. All data should have unit and unified with the second or third decimal place.
    8. (8) Case Reports
      1. ① The abovementioned requirements are also applied to case reports. Recommended length of manuscript: A4 6 pages with 10 point font size. References can be listed within 15, figure are within 4.
      2. ② Manuscripts that meet following conditions will be considered: A rare illness was handled, Abnormal symptoms were presented, A new diagnosis or treatment was provided, The case is the first of its kind in Korea, Culture-specific symptoms, and if there is a scientific sense.

  • 4. Language
    1. 1) Manuscripts must be submitted in Korean or English.
    2. 2) In English manuscripts it must be expressed in scientifically correct English and in proper grammar. It is the author's own responsibility to submit papers in final and correct English. English supervision is recommended for non-native English speaking authors.
    3. 3) It is recommended not to use abbreviations as much as possible. Abbreviations should not be used in title and summary. Please be sure all abbreviations are spelled out at first use in the text. An abbreviation should appear first in parentheses immediately after the term or phrase to which it refers. Thereafter abbreviations can be used.
    4. 4) Please use the generic name of the drug and device and include the trade name, manufacturer’s name, city, state, and/or country parenthetically at the first use in the text.
      Examples) ① Drug
      • 0.5% proparacaine hydrocholoride (Alcaine®, Alcon Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA)
      ② Device
      • Humphrey visual field anaylzer (Humphrey® field analyzer II-i, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA)
    5. 5) All the units are, in principle, the use of SI unit (International System of Units). All units have a space behind.
      Example) 2 kg (O), 2kg (X), 2 cm (O), 2cm (X)
    6. 6) All the symbols have the spacing before and after but the followings are exceptions; / (slash), - (range), : (ratio), % (percent), ° (degree), °C (celsius)
      Examples) 3/15, 20-30, 5:6, 50%, 30°, 37°C

  • 5. Costs

    All the costs incurred for the publication of manuscripts will be charged to authors. If an author wants to receive 30 copies of their papers, additional costs for copies will be added to the total submission costs.

    6. Peer Review

    To determine acceptance of an article for publication, the papers will be peer-reviewed by at least two experts in the relevant fields. The result will determine if it will be published or not as well as what to be revised and what to be supplemented.

    7. Other Requirements
    1. 1) All manuscripts should conform to the contribution requirements specified herewith. Publication can be delayed for any manuscripts that are not consistent with thesis format and not verified for spelling errors.
    2. 2) If the author wants to withdraw a manuscript, the author needs to submit a completed “Manuscript withdrawal form”, signed by all authors. However, a manuscript cannot be withdrawn by authors once it has been sent for peer-review. If author wants to resubmit the manuscript which was withdrawn before, it must be revised and re-submission must be made after 3 months.
    3. 3) Manuscripts should not be altered after the peer-review (i.e. cannot change color photo into black-and-white photo).
    4. 4) If there is a change in authors, the reasons for such change should be submitted to the Korea Optometry and Contact Lens Study Society. For any change in the 1st author or the corresponding author the consent of the Editing Committee should be sought.
    5. 5) The name and institutional address of the author should not be mentioned in the text.

    8. Submission

    Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using the online manuscript submission system, available at

September 2019, 18 (3)